Ecological footprints and sustainable development policy assessment

What and why - ecological footprints?

Research objectives

Goal 12 Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
Target 12.2 By 2030 achieve sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

Research questions


Measuring policy impacts in terms of planetary boundaries

Major implications

EF in Japan: Fossil fuel tax (additional 60%) will effectively reduce production-based EF (EFp), but only marginally affect consumption-based EF (EFc).
Policy impact on real GDP: As expected, fossil fuel tax negatively affects Japan’s real GDP (-1.3%). Some ASEAN countries exporting fossil fuels to Japan (Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam included in other ASEAN, and Vietnam) are also negatively affected.
Policy impacts on EFc in 2010: Japan’s fossil fuel tax will have significant impacts on consumption-based EF (EFc) outside Japan.
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